These discoveries were originally developed from observations of managerial roles and the behaviour of managers within large organizations. The hierarchy discovered by Elliot Jaques and Wilfred Brown was referred to regularly as «».
The Table below offers a summary of the material to be developed in this section. The attempt to be fully general means the language is perhaps slightly strained. Elaboration and examples in the Topics to follow should clarify matters.
Turf disputes associated with Jaques's heritage have bedevilled the field for many years. Labels and specifications of levels have sparked particular controversy: see discussion of alternatives.
|L||Responsibility Label||Need to be Met||Response to be Made|
|Determination of organizational identity.
||Define basic parameters
i.e.► define the basic nature of needs, services and whatever else is required to deal with this mission; plus anything that must be taken as given by all lower levels.
|WL6||Multi-field Coverage||Policy formulation and control||Frame operational fields
i.e. ► produce frameworks to bridge the divide between basic definitions and all fields or territories of actual operations.
|Strategy design and implementation||Shape overall operations
i.e.► shape the totality of operations and structure needs and services in a particular field and social territory.
|WL4||Comprehensive Provision||Management control of developments||Develop multiple services
i.e.► comprehensively balance and develop a range of services to meet the needs of some social territory.
|WL3||Systematic Provision||Operational control of concrete systems||Manage a specific service
i.e.► manage available staff, resources and facilities so as to handle presenting demand, taking into account higher level priorities and inevitable fluctuations in workload and staffing.
|WL2||Situational Response||Resolution of open-ended concrete cases||Assess and handle complex situations
i.e.► deal immediately with concrete situations by allocating resources and acting or instructing others.
|WL-1||Prescribed Output||Responses to concrete demands.||Take actions whose results are fully specifiable in advance
i.e.► perform in a given acceptable style as instructed in the specific case or in accord with general expectations.
A table comparing names for levels in this Framework to similar names for types in the and modes in is provided here, together with the link to
Review the distinction between posts and roles.
Tinyand outfits are barely viewed as organizations needing management, but even they need work on values and goals. By contrast, the success of depends largely on the quality of their management. The most sophisticated management of operations is provided by a . In the largest or , there is a headquarters body distinct from the operational subsidiaries, each typically set up at .
The next topic offers a basic account of the nature of the output at each in terms of needs to be met and responses to be made. Examples are provided to illustrate characteristic level-specific tasks, jobs and organizations. The characteristic time-scales, deadlines for task completion, are identified. Common titles given to posts are noted.
The progressive contexts described in terms of planning, resource handling and information management.can also be appreciated as
Getting these contexts right is the basis for the strongest form of authority: line-management. However, the whole system only works properly if the nature of personal capability to carry responsibility is appreciated.
Following this exposition, a review is provided and various further implications and perspectives will be explored.
Originally posted: 10-Jan-2014