Whereas the cultural diversity exists within specific sub-territories.must be primarily a single culture, the country may be of such a geographic nature, that
Terms for Region include: Province, County, Republic, Prefecture, State; and many non-English terms in non-English speaking countries.
Sub-cultures are often based on language or history—perhaps relics of previous successful invasions or waves of immigration.
Example from India: The Hindu culture provides for commonality, but there are diverse sub-cultures as manifested in language, religious sects, and history.
Geographic features commonly lead to sub-culture formation
Example from ancient Greece: The mountainous terrain led to numerous city states around the coast that interacted mainly by sea. Athens and Sparta are the best known examples of the development of distinctive sub-cultures.
This major sub-cultural division of the country potentially possesses its own complete government: legislature, judiciary and executive. If they do not possess all powers, they strive to possess as much as they can.
Example from UK: The Ministers for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland were replaced recently by devolved «Assemblies» with legislative powers. Scotland has its own legal system and judiciary, but Wales does not.
The power obtained by the region is entitled:. The precise form of regional political organization varies considerably depending, as might be expected, on geography, history, and culture, as well as population size and territory size. The more extensive the region and the more defined the sub-cultural variant, the greater the pressure for a complete government institution to sustain and develop that distinctiveness.
Examples of Regional Government: US states, Australian states, Canadian provinces, Austrian Länder, Swiss cantons, Spain's «autonomous communities», German Länder.
In other cases, powers are limited in some way.
Specific concerns in regard to preserving and developing the culture include the same topics as preoccupy the national level: i.e. education, social welfare, economic development professional regulation, justice, health care, housing.
Theis often a union of regions. In a nation-state, all sub-cultures are expected to be variants of a single culture. Political union (based on cohesion) only persists if there is a common language and sufficient commonality of culture amongst the regional subdivisions.
Examples of regional problems: Spain has regions with Catalonia and Basque having distinctive languages and culture; UK with Cornwall, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland—lands which have their own languages and histories.
It is a tricky situation: the cultural conflicts.is concerned with the same culture-based fields as the regions, but must not infringe their essential autonomy. Naturally there are conflicts at times or even all the time. Read more on
Originally posted: August-2009; Last updated: 15-Nov-2010