By naturally participate in the 7 arenas of …people
…which are sustained and developed by those who feel obligated to to make a difference:
In, these become adept at using some of the 6 …
…which are sustained and developed by self-interestedly taking advantage of emerging :
By, the harness one or more of the 5 drivers of …
…which are sustained and developed by formally pursuing 4 sources of for government and society…
…now read on:
If mobilization has been successful, some change is accepted as necessary. But society is complex. Even if the general type and direction of change is clear and values are widely agreed, both the big ideas and details of public policy are rarely obvious and usually contentious. So it is necessary to arrange inquiries that develop relevant knowledge on which recommendations are based.
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)… "There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things."
Change means re-adjustment of rationalist ethos.: one of the deep drivers of . Policy must be sufficiently rational if it is to manage the emotion-driven contention associated with , and any potential change in society. So there is a societal need to positively welcome clear analyses and proposals and this means commissioning inquiry. Naturally this is far easier to implement if the society's political institutions have firmly established the
Any relevant inquiry must be authoritative if it is to be credible for wider society and considered by the government bureaucracy. So the institution, procedures and outputs of any inquiry need to be formal and well-documented.
Formal instructions or commissions for an inquiry may occur in two guises, much as we found in G2-political work.
There are 4 social mechanisms by which 4 Tetrads: in the Structural Hierarchy—see diagram.may be methodically generated for formal consideration. These are defined by the
Output from any formal policy-related inquiry takes time, never less than several months, usually 1-2 years, and in the case of some public inquiries as long as 2-5 years. As shown below, none of the policy methods escapes criticism.
A formally institutedis the method that most fully engages ordinary people in the policy-making process.
It emerges most effectively in societies that have reached the rationalist stage of political maturation.
Clamour for such an inquiry arises if public suffering has been caused by existing policies or by specific actions of a particular government agency.
Once the inquiry is over and the Report submitted, the team in charge is normally disbanded.
Public inquiries tend to be politically embarrassing, and the above criticisms serve as reasons/excuses given by governments to avoid them.
Agets its value from being academically-based and potentially independent of government, commerce and popular opinion.
deliberately impartial or self-consciously committed to a paradigm or ideology.Institutes may present themselves as
Each Institute exists to produce a flow of Reports, relevant studies and supporting promotional-educational events according to its particular mission.
Most think-tanks, free-standing or within a University, are multi-disciplinary. Reports sometimes emerge from specific academic departments e.g. sociology, economics.
Aproduced within a civil service bureaucracy or statutory agency is the method that is most under the control of the government.
The Government executive or civil service is divided up into a variety of departments, and appoints semi-arms length public agencies covering a range of societal matters.
On request from the political leadership, most departments have the capability to producewith implementable recommendations. Sometimes these are given special names (e.g. «white paper» or «green paper» in the UK)
can be produced as well, but the necessary cooperation often founders on differences in loyalties and perspectives.
Depending on their focus and content, Departmental Papers are distributed more or less widely to relevant organizations and interest groups for comments. Responses from this consultation may lead to amendments, or abandonment of the paper, or comments may be ignored entirely.
Ais developed by the membership organization of an industry or a professional body or other enduring or ad hoc representative group. Typically we think of financial interests, but powerful lobbies could have other interests.
Additional experts or representatives may be co-opted, and government officials may be invited as well. Any industry or particular interest group has its own agenda, but all face specific risks and have societally-relevant concerns (see diagram).
On the one hand the industry or group affected contains the most knowledgeable people; on the other hand it contains the people with the most to lose or to gain by government rules and intervention.
The main advantage is that a proposal generated by powerful groups can be assumed to have the support of those groups.
and occur under government auspices, the former with significant autonomy, and the latter with very little.
and emerge from private initiatives. The former are often published by institutions partly funded by government; while the latter have no public funding but often receive various forms of non-financial assistance.
More on the four sources of public policy including specification of their internal structures.
Having the facts, a rounded picture and a variety of recommendations, possibly revealing many objections and differences, is a step in the right direction. But it is some distance away from legislative or executive changes and commitments made on behalf of society. The issue that emerges from policy inquiries is:
exactly what should be done,
So, after Grouping/Level to consider determining authorization of change., we must move up a
Originally posted: August-2009; Last updated: 15-Nov-2010