Each instrument will be taken in turn and compared in terms of the key features relevant to «without recourse to violence.» in society
These features are:
Aim: Function of the activity in.
Political Necessity: Why the activity is needed by.
Paradigm Role: The persona of.
Social Justification: The claimed rationale, whose validity is variable.
Levels are applied to generate pressure.How the two component
Examples: To illustrate what the instrument, and the account provided, refers to in everyday social life.
Deterioration: How destructive elements, inherent in the power-centred mentality usual amongst , can get out of hand.
Aim: To maintain power or to reposition your group in the light of developing events and emerging opportunities.
Political Necessity: Respond to any threat or challenge to the status quo, including decisions and directions already taken.
Charles de Gaulle (1890–1970)… Since a politician never believes what he says, he is quite surprised to be taken at his word.
Social Justification: To maintain social equilibrium and prevent conflicts between groups escalating in intensity, and potentially disrupting social life.
obligatory to go beyond observing and affirming the rule of law to cleverly and effectively in support of your own group while challenging behaviours of other groups or government—who often exceed the law or infringe your rights out of ignorance or by design.
It is natural to : this means ensuring it does not suffer in terms of its strength, social leverage or wealth from neutral events or deliberate actions by others.
Examples: Commenting on official statistics that look either good or bad for your group; sending warning signals to the other groups that tempers could flare if they persist; mounting a court challenge even if it is not followed through; planting questions in a debate from which your group has been excluded; using a public speech to comment on a matter that is entirely extraneous but of great concern to your group.
Deterioration: It is common for players to conform to the letter of the law but not the spirit, and many find it tempting to push the envelope and engage in borderline or outright illegality.
As a general rule in the current ethos, the bigger and stronger the group, the more natural it is to take illegal action. The most powerful group is the government, so it engages in the most massive and shameless illegalities.
Aim: To develop a defensible position on a matter of importance within society.
Political Necessity: To have coherent responses ready so as to be able to respond to tricky questions and direct challenges from the media, from politicians, or from members of the public.
Paradigm Role: Spokesman.
Social Justification: To show adequate knowledge and communicate it publicly in a consistent, coherent and definite way with proper authority.
obligatory to be aware of all relevant that have been made in the past, and of possible future decisions permissible under the law.
It is natural to demonstrate propriety and adherence to the . On a smaller scale, every organization (especially those in the public eye or using donations) needs internal regulations and systems that ensure the propriety of its staff.
Example: Briefings are regularly presented by the media as “a spokesman for X (or X group, X industry, or X’s department) said today that…”.
Deterioration: Cover-ups, bungles, ignorance, bland denials, disinformation, refusals to comment.
Aim: To ensure that decisions are reached that can be delivered because relevant powerful individuals and groups have consented.
Political Necessity: To get results despite conflicts of interest or obstruction either from external powerful groups or from powerful individuals within your own group. The fact that deliberations have occurred may not be made public; and if it is public there is a refusal to disclose contents on some incontestable grounds (e.g. commercial sensitivity, national security, presidential privilege &c.)
often involves many people, groups and organizations. Those with a vested interest commonly choose to impede or sabotage progress. Others may use the necessity of their help to extract a favour, concession or bribe.
So the first step is to quietly identify the relevance of the various parties and recognize the power differentials inherent in any resolution. Then secret talks can commence. It is a process of determining needed agreement or support, and doing deals where necessary. Such discussions are sensitive and often seemingly scandalous, so all parties insist that matters be kept confidential. If exposed, there will usually be a point-blank denial.
Paradigm Role: Decision-maker.
Social Justification: To ensure the privacy required for frank and genuine discussions that can generate secure commitments.
obligation on the executive to handle or enable the handling of any causing concern.
It is natural for in all relevant groups to respond to worrying issues and evolving situations by .
Examples: Union negotiations prior to calling strikes or ending strikes; after an election, organizing coalitions amongst political parties by agreeing the sharing of cabinet posts and doing deals on policy differences.
Deterioration: Dishonest dealing or agreements made on terms that are unfavourable to members of a group or to the public at large, or involve a breach of previous agreements, or are illegal, or entail bribes or improper favours.
Paul Valery 1871 – 1945… Politics is the art of preventing people from taking part in affairs which properly concern them.
Aim: To influencein the designing or application of laws and policies so as to promote the welfare of part or all of society.
Political Necessity: To oppose and criticize vested interests, political collusion and secret dealings as ignoring and actually or potentially harming the public good.
Paradigm Role: Advocate and advocacy organizations.
Social Justification: To inform officials and speak up for the public or a section of the public who are unable, in the nature of things, to represent themselves adequately.
obligation to clarify the relevance of the issue and how what they are
It is natural for advocacy groups to identify and so as to seek a resolution that satisfies their goals.
Examples: Advocacy is needed where the public interest is fragmented (e.g. consumers, taxpayers), where services benefit society directly (e.g. liberal education, scientific research, public broadcasting), and where people are intrinsically disadvantaged (e.g. the mentally handicapped, sufferers from unusual diseases, asylum seekers, prisoners).
Deterioration: There may be deception and distortion of the issue for ulterior motives by all sides. Some campaign groups masquerade as serving the public interest while being funded and directed by industry. Often politicians seek to frighten the public in order to get consent for extreme actions, more bureaucratic control, or large expenditures. The media often allies with the establishment to suppress or weaken advocates who present politically embarrassing views.
Aim: To argue matters of public interest in an open forum ensuring differing relevant value-based perspectives are represented.
Political Necessity: To capture the moral high-ground, undermine opposing views, win the argument, and gain public support.
Paradigm Role: Representative.
Social Justification: To argue the case and rebut opposing views.
obligation to of society, and to highlight relevant ideas and ideals from them to foster an emotional response to the argument.
It is natural in a debate for representatives not only to give personal views typical of their own side, but also to so as to claim to be speaking for the benefit of all.
Examples: Leaders of organizations active in the political arena regularly appear in public debates, live or broadcast, and so do many who work in the media as writers, presenters, or speakers.
Deterioration: Smears on character may substitute for debating on substance, especially at election time. Rhetorical tricks, half-truths, and even lies, are commonly used to win people over.
Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) noticed that, for most people, winning an argument was usually more important than getting at the truth. When there is intrinsic uncertainty, as is common in political issues, then winning is often all that matters.
Genuinely worried that his observations might be used and cause harm, he never published his text—but posterity took care of that. Here are some of his ideas for winning even if you don’t deserve to:
Aim: To identify failures of responsibility and imagination by either or both the government and the citizenry.
Political Necessity: To claim truth, justice and right are on your side.
Paradigm Role: «Voice of Conscience».
Social Justification: To awaken the public and those in power to the need to address failures or errors.
obligation to that are neglected, in contravention of basic humanitarian expectations, as well as in terms of society’s moral precepts.
It is natural to as a source of maxims and precepts and use these as a driver to improve the unsatisfactory conditions undeservingly suffered by many people.
Examples: The focus is often on unnecessary or unfair damage to common goods like air, natural beauty, rivers. Minorities, children and disadvantaged groups who cannot easily complain, often need someone to speak up for them.
Special UK Example–Maltreatment of Children: Children of deportees combine two disadvantages. In May 2008 England’s Children’s Commissioner and his team visited a detention centre holding children «for administrative purposes», and reported in April 2009. The children, many of whom had been living in the UK for years, had been treated rudely and roughly on arrest, put in caged vehicles smelling of urine and vomit, and taken to what looked like prison. In this bleak environment, there was no concern for medical records, no proper provisions for vaccination, and serious diseases were inadequately treated.
Deterioration: Appalling conditions or happenings may be created artificially to win public sympathy. Paranoia may develop in regard to the failing or danger, so that the sufferers are segregated or deported to remove their offending presence. A frenzy develops and guilt is proven by association: e.g. a respected «paediatrician» is attacked in a public place because his title sounds similar to «paedophile».
Proverbs 29:18 Where there is no vision, the people perish.
If you are a political player, then you need opportunities that give you an opening to get the results required by your agenda.
Originally posted: August-2009; Last updated: 5-July-2014.