Consider for each approach:
We will consider and plot approaches one by one on the blank TET with axes labelled.
Remember the Value of a TET: The TET permits us to look simultaneously at all 7 approaches to ethical choice in an arrangement that reflects the basic mechanics of choice.
Y-axis: very high on the Y-axis.. The approach requires an intense inner focus plus a deep personal commitment to one's own sense of what is right &/or good. Authenticity and integrity are essential. This places the approach
X-axis: very low on the X-axis.. There is little concern for pressures and views of others, and no explicit requirement to benefit others. While others may well be considered or even targeted for benefit, the final choice can just as easily be asocial or be viewed by another as anti-social or harmful to others. This means it scores
We placein the upper left corner of the upper left quadrant.
X-axis: very low on the X-axis.. The choice is concerned with acceptability through conformity to existing norms and values. The aspiration is continuity—which means choosing like everyone else, even if others are harmed or society itself is damaged. This scores it
Y-axis: very low on the Y-axis.. Choosing what is generally accepted is almost a matter of habit and involves minimal mental or intuitive effort. There are often explicit forceful pressures from others indicating explicitly what choice is right. This places it
We placein the lower left corner of the lower left quadrant.
X-axis: very high on the X-axis.. The choice must produce a balanced or holistic result that is beneficial for oneself and for all others through an active and positive concern for them. This rates it
Y-axis: very high on the Y-axis.. Choosing entails recognizing one's own needs and interests as well as appreciating the needs and interests of others who may be in quite different situations, with different backgrounds and values. This is highly demanding, and requires empathic identification and awareness. This places it
We placein the upper right corner of the upper right quadrant.
X-axis: lower half of the X-axis but not as low as the approach.. The approach requires the setting of impersonal rules accepted by oneself and others. The rules need to be justified as right and fair, but they are not primarily oriented to generate specific benefit for specific persons. Typically, rules aim to prevent some future harm or reduce present unfairness. But they must not be too complex, or they will be misunderstood, forgotten or ignored. This means it scores in the
Y-axis: lower half of the Y-axis, but again not so low as the approach.. Setting a rule requires knowledge of social situations, some thought about typical behaviours of people, and appreciating what constraints they are likely to tolerate. This places it in the
We placein the upper right part of the lower left quadrant.
X-axis: lower half of the X-axis but not as low as the or approaches.. Self-interest seemingly conflicts with benefit for others. However, personal gain demands that self-interest be deliberately aligned with social values, power relations, and trends. Others need to benefit at least to some degree. This means it scores in the
Y-axis: upper half of the Y-axis, but again not so high as the approach.. Self-interest requires a considerable degree of self-awareness because it is not easy to know ones own needs and interests and shape them so as to fit into a community and mesh with the interests of others. This places it in the
We placein the lower right part of the upper left quadrant.
X-axis: upper half of the X-axis but not as extreme as the approach.. Solving any social problem in a sensible worthwhile way will generate some benefit for others. However, the benefit is focused and partial, and a good solution may even affect some people adversely. This means it scores in the
Y-axis: upper half of the Y-axis, but again not so high as the or approaches.. There is an orientation to objectivity, mastery of emotion, and a requirement to guard against bias, prejudice and conflicts of interest. All this demands self-awareness, which places it in the
We placein the lower left part of the upper right quadrant.
This is a group-oriented approach, which seeks to expediently pursue the ideals of the chooser’s group(s), while generating some wider benefit.
This concern for others within recognized groups locates it on the right half of the X-Axis. However, as choices are defined by the nature and ideals of the groups, they do not require too much self-awareness. So it belongs in the lower right quadrant.
At the upper left of this quadrant (near the centre),is the better label, because the focus is on the chooser's in-group, i.e. that one group (or perhaps two) that represents the chooser’s main interests and loyalties. This means that there will be benefit for fewer others (so not so far along on the X-axis), and a need for more self-awareness in relation to the group (so higher on the Y-axis).
By contrast, at the bottom right, the better name isbecause a chooser addresses the values and interests of many relevant groups (as well as their own). A chooser must operate expediently in the light of these groups' relative power over them—so self-awareness can be very low.
We showcovering a diffuse elliptical area in the lower right quadrant.
The Two THEE-Names: When making a personal ethical choice, «THEE-name because we generally focus on our own group. In , however, we are forced to deal with a variety of groups, so we will mainly use the THEE-name « ».» is a preferred
We have now completed plotting the Typology Essences Table (TET). This allows us to look simultaneously at all approaches in an arrangement that reflects the basic mechanics of committed choice.
The TET reveals additional significant features of the including:
These TET features deserve exploration to better appreciate the various .
Originally posted: July 2009; Last updated: 27 Jan 2010