The exercise of go here.), consciously or unconsciously, is the way that everyone everyday demonstrates responsible membership of their society—as well as membership of humanity. (For the difference between these two memberships,
Ethical conflicts are just another example of diversity in society, a diversity that occurs whatever the political context or form of government. Many, perhaps most, conflicts are based on the use of sharply different doctrines for choosing.
Inquiry has revealed that distinct Principal Typology as shown in the diagram at right.are part of the . The approaches are a special sort of « » and form a nested
There are seven fundamentally distinct ways of going about, with each built on a distinctive .
For details, download Ch.6 in Working with Values.
|L||Core Obligation||Name of the Approach|
|L'-III:||Choose to benefit your group(s)||(or )|
|L'-IV:||Choose to benefit yourself|
|L'-V:||Choose to benefit all overall|
The various genuinely ethical within their social groups and society.do not prescribe exactly what choice must be made in any particular situation. Instead they determine how a person approaches the making of a choice so that it can be deemed and defended as
The approach determines a person's choice to a large degree i.e.… differences of opinion commonly flow from the different assumptions applied, rather than any idiosyncratic personal element in choosing.
|L'||The Ethical Choice
(given the realities)
|II||Follow what is acceptable!
(in the face of change)
|III||Benefit your group!
||Pursue group ideals
(on the basis of egoism)
||Seek the common good
(allowing for autonomy)
(in a temporal context)
Each approach has its own assumptions; and these generate logical and emotional incompatibilities with the others.
People differ in their preferences—typically preferring one or two as «truly ethical», even if they use them all from time to time. So «» or «mindset» rather than «preference» better fits a person’s use of an approach.
As a result, hostility and condemnation may emerge amongst people pursuing what is good and right in their own «personally correct» way.
What do philosophers say? The ethical approaches appear as doctrines or theoretical paradigms. Philosophers endlessly debate their relative merits and difficulties—often using the dualistic classification teleological versus deontological.
Originally posted: July 2009; Last updated: 24-Feb-2014