The properties already described are listed and elaborated here:
|L||Types of Moral Institution||Identity Realm [PH'4]
& Typical Concerns
|Main Ethical Rule*
dress, appearance, dining, speech.
sex. aggression, work, alcohol, drugs, money.
any quality or aspect of a society that enables attachment.
Claims, duties, powers, disabilities, privileges, immunities, liabilities.
handling personal and social relationships.
maintaining peace, order, justice, freedom and the common good.
mysteries of existence—especially evil, suffering, God.
*Each institution uses all: see below.
Tables are modified from Ch.7 Working with Values: Software of the Mind (1995).
For a more detailed explanation, download Ch. 7 here.
Individuality matters because these powerful and enduringimpact heavily on each member of society, often in an unforgiving way. Compliance demands, and the approach to individual differences, vary according to the .
Eachtakes a distinctive view of individuals and their differences: at the lowest levels, individuals are regarded as virtually identical. However, as the hierarchy is ascended, the significance of individual differences is increasingly realized until at the very highest these differences are transcended.
Sanction (S) & Inducement (I)
|Approach to Individual Differences|
|I"||S: Direct social control
I: Certainty behaviour is right.
|Ignored & irrelevant|
|II"||S: Social rejection
I: Social acceptance
|Suppressed & overcome|
|III"||S: Social opposition
I: Social endorsement
|Accepted & tolerated|
|IV"||S: Losing social benefits
I: Gaining social benefits
|Classified & institutionalized|
|V"||S: Social condemnation
I: Social admiration
|Recognized & valued|
|VI"||S: Public penalties
I: Public support
|Assumed & protected|
|VII"||S: Being distrusted
I: Being trusted
|Sustained & transcended|
|I"||Too artificial and mechanical; interferes with spontaneity.|
|II"||Too rigid or too lax; worsens personal problems.|
|III"||Blocks learning from outsiders; creates taboos.|
|IV"||Too insensitive to individuals; institutionalizes injustice.|
|V"||Too demanding and unrealistic to be used in everyday life.|
|VI"||Too powerful; too corruptible; too bureaucratic; too coercive.|
|VII"||Too pervasive; too controlling; too hypocritical.|
The moral institutions show a cumulation of rule types i.e. Institution-VII": requires all 7 types of , Institution-VI": requires only the lower 6 types of , and so on down to that only requires 1 type of : , the most basic and direct rule.
TheSatellite only provides ultra-brief summary accounts of ethical matters.
Working with Values: Software of the Mind (1995) explored ethical choice and ethical institutions in detail.
See Ch.6 for
See Ch.7 for .
See Ch.8 for .
See Ch.9 for .
The Chapters can be downloaded free.
Note: Additional work has been completed since 1995 in regard to the dynamics of ethical phenomena in societies.
Originally posted: July 2009; Last updated: 12 June 2014.